This study evaluates the effectiveness of group education with the use of CMs for people with type 2 DM in comparison with the standard information provision from the primary healthcare physician to the patient. ... Do the advantages. Participants were asked to provide their written consent after they had been informed about the educational programme and the study. Regarding group education without CMs, researches support that a significant reduction of HbA1c was observed in favour of group based diabetes education [7, 15]. On the other hand, in Italy, HbA1c and body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly in patients with type 2 DM after attending a course using CM group education [12]. Working in a group is an effective and powerful way to learn, and is highly relevant to the work type and workplace. Different cassettes can be recorded with different health messages and be used according to the need and interest of the audience group. Moreover, a study on the effectiveness of a health promotion programme for changing the BMI in patients with type 2 DM, Salinero-Fort et al. Some researchers support that CM group education was significantly more effective than individual education in improving HbA1c for people with type 2 DM [9, 12]. Participants’ HbA1c values were significantly lower in the control group 6 months after the intervention, with an average change value of −0.5 (95% CI: −1.4, −0.3). Obesity and tobacco use, for example, cost the United States billions of dollars each year in healthcare costs and lost productivity. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Introduction To Health Education Objectives At the end of this chapter, the trainees will be able to: • Explain the concept of Health. Similarly, in the intervention group participants’ HbA1c values decreased significantly after the intervention, with an average change value of −0.6 (95% CI: −0.8, −0.3; Table II). However, this observation cannot be attributed to the educational procedure due to the limited size of the study. The educational material consisted of ‘Conversation Maps: Learning About Diabetes’ which are interactive tools that include pictures and cards with topics for discussion providing everyone with the opportunity to participate in the educational process. This material is the product of a 3-year international collaboration between the Pharmaceutical Company Lilly and the company Healthy Interactions that works worldwide on health education, as well as the European Branch of the ΙDF [14]. Implementation, maintenance and expansion of such programmes in the healthcare sector could constitute one of the most significant structural changes in Greece. Group-based patient education using Conversation Maps for people with type 2 diabetes is more effective, compared with individual education, in diabetes self-management. Significant changes between the groups presented by HbA1c and HDL in favour of group education. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com, Effectiveness of pictographs in improving patient education outcomes: a systematic review, Parenting style as longitudinal predictor of adolescents’ health behaviors in Lebanon, Getting the right message: a content analysis and application of the health literacy INDEX tool to online HIV resources in Australia, Is type of practice setting associated with physician’s cultural competency training? People with type 2 DM who have been regular patients of the physicians at the Health Centre participated in the study. • State basic principles of Health Education. Advantages 1. Can improve friendships and students abilities to socialize 3. Health Education Methods and Materials-2015, Change perception change your health thru meditation, Keeping Good Health: Best Practices for Data Health in eTapestry, No public clipboards found for this slide, NoT yeT woRkiNg !! See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Moreover, BMI remained unchanged in both education groups and for both countries in a study comparing the effectiveness of CMs versus standard care of adults with type 2 diabetes in Spain and Germany [13]. http://www.healthyinteractions.com/conversation-map-programs/conversation-map-experience/current-programs/usdiabetes, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, The effects and costs of a group-based education programme for self-management of patients with Type 2 diabetes. One American study demonstrated that people who listen to th… A review of 11 studies points out that group-based education for people with type 2 DM has been shown effective in improving HbA1c, diabetes knowledge, reduction of systolic blood pressure levels, body weight and requirement for diabetes medication [6]. Several studies point out that diabetes group education, compared with individual education, was equally effective at improving diabetes control [2, 4, 5]. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 and analyses were conducted using SPSS statistical software (version 17.0). In this study, health visitors conducted group education, and the follow up process. The bold values are significant at <0.001 and 0.003. Group education has been characterized as a cost-effective alternative to individual education for diabetes [3]. Twenty seven out of the 165 participants of the intervention group were not included in the study either because they were on insulin therapy or suffered from serious diseases (16 people) or because they did not agree to attend the educational programme (11 people). Health professionals in the primary healthcare sector should be more responsive to the needs of people with type 2 DM and trained to facilitate groups of patients effectively. Absolute (Ν) and relative (%) frequencies were used for the description of categorical variables. A recent study, using group based Conversation Map (CM) sessions for educating people with type 2 diabetes, pointed out that individual education resulted in better glucose control outcomes than group education [8] while another study supports that blood glucose monitoring was improved after group education intervention using the American Association of Diabetes Educators curriculum combined with CMs [9]. The findings of this study show that a short educational programme in a group using the Conversation Maps ‘Learning About Diabetes’ may be more effective than individual education in regulating HbA1 and HDL in people with type 2 DM. Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook 4.1.4 [updated October 2001]. iM stiLl stUdYinG ! Also, another study comparing changes in total cholesterol and triglycerides found no significant differences between the group based and individual education for people with type 2 diabetes [7]. Our finding is also contradictory to the results of a recent systematic review that found no significant changes in BMI between group education and individual diabetes education at 6 months follow up [7]. Not everyone benefits from a group scenario, but for some people, 1-on-1 therapy sessions are not beneficial either. Additionally, the study sample is not representative of the general population for people with Type 2 DM, and as a result it is not possible to generalize the conclusions reached in this study, as they were patients of the Diabetic Outpatient Clinic at the Health Centre, had known the research team for a long time, lived in the particular area, a small town near the capital of Greece, had existing social networks and their own community culture. More research is needed to document the advantages of group education methods versus individual education for people with type 2 DM. It is useful for providing health education (message) to a group of audience. 28.5% of all participants (Ν = 55) constituted the control group and the remaining 71.5% (Ν = 138) the intervention group. Paired t-tests were used to estimate changes within each study group by comparing baseline and follow-up values. The education for all groups lasted from May to September 2012. conclusion health education have the potential to tacle the underlying determinants of oral health and thereby improve the oral health of all sections of society.it has an immediate impact on behavior.it is vital to the practice and prevention and is the channel for reaching the people and alerting them to health services and resources.the focus of health education is on people &their actions … According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 382 million people had diabetes in 2013 and this number is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035, while 175 million people remain undiagnosed. Based on the above research findings, both individual and group education for people with type 2 DM have a positive result in clinical outcomes; however, it seems that group education can provide care to a large number of people with DM with reduced human resources requirements. The authors attributed their findings to that both groups (intervention and control) devoted the same amount of time to physical exercise [20]. At the same time, patients are given the chance to evaluate their own overall health status. Moreover, patients’ conversations with the facilitator and the other participants, as well as being able to discuss their own experiences of diabetes, may constitute powerful advantages of group education [23]. Published by Oxford University Press. [20] reported that there was no statistically significant reduction of BMI between the intervention and control group. Hello, If we are asked in a task 2 writing question to discuss both views of a topic and to give our opinion, should we tackle our opinion first and. Recordings for HbA1C were conducted by an analyst (DMC 2000) at the clinic. Answering Opinion Essay Questions. The eligibility criteria for researchers performing the intervention were: to be permanent employees of the Health Centre, work in Diabetic Outpatient Clinic, to be one doctor diabetologist who would provide information for diabetes management to the control group individuals and two health visitors who facilitated group education in the intervention group. Also, permission to have access to the data on all other diabetes patients attending the clinic was not given to us, a fact that limits the representativeness and generalizability of the findings. Our findings show that diabetes is better regulated in patients who attended group education. There was no statistically significant change in the BMI variable after 6 months between the two groups. All participants of the study fasted hours before giving blood. Here are a few points to highlight the advantages of group learning: Effective learning; Generic Skills advancement; Workplace relevance; Development of Social Networks; The group dynamic awareness development; What Makes an Effective Team? For every four names/ appointments, the first 3 individuals were assigned to the intervention group and the fourth to the control group. Respectively, for people of the control group, the doctor, who was a member of the research team, arranged their next appointment for follow-up, 6 months later. Another study concluded that clinical outcomes improved in 6 months in both groups (standard care and CM group education) [13]. Finally, the role of social support that the group offered in better controlling diabetes was not studied. However, in the intervention group participants’ BMI decreased significantly after the intervention, with an average change value of −0.7 (95% CI: −0.9, −0.1) while in the control group no statistical change was observed (Table II). There is no adequate evidence of which education methods are the most effective in improving clinical outcomes of people with type 2 diabetes. Health education is a profession of educating people about health. This study was conducted in the Health Centre of the Primary Healthcare Clinic in the City of Markopoulo, 25 km outside Athens, the capital of Greece. The group education was facilitated by two trained health visitors who were permanent staff at the diabetes outpatient clinic of the health centre and members of the research team. CMs cover four issues about diabetes. Employment. This study has a number of limitations. In the control group, HDL was significantly reduced whereas LDL also significantly decreased. As soon as each group completed their education, the members of the research team fixed appointments for the participants for 6 months later for follow up. According to the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, school PE programs should require both fitness and cogn… The facilitator is the person guiding the discussion. The intervention group, instead of receiving standard care, would attend an educational group programme for diabetes management using CMs while the control group would only receive standard care in the context of their regular appointment including information and guidelines from their consultant on an individual level. In our study, a significant change between the two groups was observed in favour of the CM group, although both study groups significantly improved HbA1c. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Risk factor changes (HbA1c, ΒΜΙ, tryglycerides, HDL and LDL) for participants before and after the intervention between and within groups. Learn about the many benefits of participating in group. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Recruitment of the participants took place in May 2012 and the follow-up determined to take place 6 months later. No Waiting Period: There is no concept of waiting period in group health covers and thus, even illnesses like heart issues, diabetes, etc. However, in our study the first three were used, such as: ‘Living with diabetes’ which constitutes a review of diabetes and includes a description of what the disease is as well as some of the most widely spread myths about diabetes. All reported P values are two-tailed. Useful for Employee’s Wellbeing: Group health insurance policies play a crucial role in securing the health … Physical education programs in schools directly benefit students' physical health. A randomized, controlled trial recently compared the effectiveness of delivering diabetes education in a group versus an individual setting.6 Glycemic control improved in both groups, with a slightly more marked reduction in the group setting (between-group difference in hemoglobin A 1c of 0.8%, P = 0.05). It is a great tool to further economic growth, encourage innovation, and strengthens a society. [17] report that, in order to achieve a reduction of 1% for A1c, 23.6 h are required to be spent with the instructor. Moreover, a higher percentage of people in the intervention group had values of HbA1c <7 mmol/mol (P < 0.001; Table I). A recent study using CM groups resulted in significantly higher knowledge for the CM group but no significant differences in clinical outcomes [10]. ‘Healthy diet and physical exercise’ which focuses on the changes the patients should make to their lifestyle in order to gain a better quality of life and avoid or slow down potential complications. K. Merakou, A. Knithaki, G. Karageorgos, D. Theodoridis, A. Barbouni, Group patient education: effectiveness of a brief intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary health care in Greece: a clinically controlled trial, Health Education Research, Volume 30, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages 223–232, https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyv001. The study focused on the short-term effects of a behavioural change during a 6 month period. Can increase students tolerance for differences 2. This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Brief educational radio segments can be inserted between programs during primetime hours, when the maximal number of people are tuned in. Using health questionnaires, doctors are able to evaluate the overall health status of a patient (including treatments the patient needs if found to have a current health problem). Additionally, the educational material used for group education was colourful and large in size which may have helped people to better comprehend their disease. Dec 08, 20 02:30 PM. This research should be replicated in different health or community settings to examine the effectiveness of group patient education with type 2 DM. According to the results of our study, only HDL presented a significant difference between the two groups. The advantages and disadvantages of education although seemingly quite clear can be explored to quite a detailed level. Group therapy for mental health treatment can be just what the doctor ordered to help you better cope. Differences in changes of study variables during the follow up period between the two study groups were evaluated using repeated measurements analysis of variance. Of course, other studies point out the opposite. In explaining these findings we should take into consideration that these specific patients were already being monitored at the primary health care setting, knew the staff and lived in the area and, as a result, may have been positively predisposed to change their behaviour. Health questionnaires are equally useful to both doctors and patients. Ciardullo et al. However, a higher number of participants with a low educational level (6–9 years of school) (P = 0.050), with less years since diabetes diagnosis (P = 0.035) and with a lower mean value of HbA1c (P < 0.001) participated significantly in the intervention group. In both groups ( P = 0.003 ). ] profession of people! 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